hypericum perforatum identification
Identification, health, Folk usages included oily extract ("St John's oil") and Hypericum snaps. It has opposite and stalkless leaves that are narrow and oblong in shape and 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) long. 119 and Costa et al. 2002;325:781-5. Our prior studies established synergistic anti-inflammatory activity associated with 4 bioactive compounds in a fraction of a H. perforatum ethanol extract. It is particularly important to identify which constituents present in the H. perforatum extracts are responsible for its' anti-inflammatory activity since consumers are taking H. perforatum preparations to treat inflammation. However, the subspecies immaculatum now only occurs in south-east Europe. In-depth wild edible PDFs.  St John's wort also decreases the levels of estrogens, such as estradiol, by accelerating its metabolism, and should not be taken by women on contraceptive pills. The aerial plant is dried for a variety of uses. Het is een echte zomerbloeier: van ongeveer 24 juni – de dag van Sint-Jan – tot in september.  A 2016 review noted that use of St. John's wort for mild and moderate depression was better than placebo for improving depression symptoms, and comparable to antidepressant medication. Animals typically seek shade and have reduced appetite. Although general aversion to water is noted, some may seek water for relief.  The black and lustrous seeds are rough, netted with coarse grooves. Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) is an herb widely used as supplement for mild to moderate depression. Possibly a hybrid between H. maculatum and H. attenuatum, the species can be found across temperate areas of Eurasia and has been introduced as an invasive weed to much of North and South America, as well as South Africa and Australia. H. perforatum, also named St. John's Wort, is a native species to Europe, Middle East and North Africa, which has been adapted to different climatic and ecological conditions [ 2 ]. It prefers sandy soils. Genome-wide identification and characterization of R2R3-MYB family in Hypericum perforatum under diverse abiotic stresses Int J Biol Macromol . In de homeopathie en de ziekteclassificatie behoort Hypericum tot de acute middelen. This can lead to visual sensitivity to visible and ultraviolet light and to sunburns in situations that would not normally cause them. Some affected animals may accidentally drown. , In the United States, St John's wort is considered a dietary supplement by the FDA, and is not regulated by the same standards as a prescription drug. The stems are woody near their base and may appear jointed from leaf scars. 2020 Feb 15;145:341-354. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.12.100. primary photosensitisation directly from chemicals contained in ingested plants. , H. perforatum is affected by phytoplasma diseases, and when infected with Candidatus phytoplasma fraxini in undergoes several phytochemical changes and shows visible symptoms, including yellowing and witches' bloom symptoms. nutrition, recipes, history, uses & more! Share. Click. Please click here for more information. Leaves are very identifiable as they have transparent dots throughout the tissue and occasionally with a few black dots on the lower surface. click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Hypericum thumbnails at the Plants Gallery Jennifer Anderson. This leads to tissue lesions, particularly noticeable on and around parts of skin exposed to light. Hypericum Perforatum 200 Uses, Benefits – Hypericum 30. Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort, or simply St John's wort,[note 1] is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae and the type species of the genus Hypericum. , St John's wort reproduces both vegetatively and sexually. EdibleWildFood.com is informational in nature. Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) is an herb widely used as supplement for mild to moderate depression. Feels as if lifted high in air, or anxiety lest he fall from a height ;  Herbal medicine has also employed lipophilic extracts from St John's wort as a topical remedy for wounds, abrasions, burns, and muscle pain. For the flower known in Devon as St John's wort, see, Comparison of selected chemical constituents of, Watt, John Mitchell; Breyer-Brandwijk, Maria Gerdina: The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa 2nd ed Pub. We are not health professionals, medical doctors, nor are we nutritionists. Identification and genetic analysis of the APOSPORY locus in Hypericum perforatum L. Schallau A(1), Arzenton F, Johnston AJ, Hähnel U, Koszegi D, Blattner FR, Altschmied L, Haberer G, Barcaccia G, Bäumlein H.  Hyperforin has also displayed antibacterial properties against Gram-positive bacteria, although dosage, safety and efficacy have not been studied. In clinical trials about 67% of patients with mild to moderate depression improved when taking this plant. St. John’s wort can increase the rapid breakdown of irinotecan (Camptosar) by the body and decrease the efficacy of irinotecan (Camptosar). 30 CE) to the Venice treacle of d'Amsterdammer Apotheek in 1686. *Please select more than one item to compare  Behavioural signs of poisoning are general restlessness and skin irritation. St. John’s wort is an herbaceous perennial growing in many areas around the world and has a long history of herbal use. Hypericum perforatum This species should not be confused with the ornamental St. Johnswort found in gardens. Source: United States Dispensatory (1918) Irinotecan (Camptosar) is broken down by the body to get rid of it. 120. Hyperforin, a phytochemical constituent of the species, is under basic research for its possible biological properties. 5-hydroxytryptamine – synonym for serotonin.  Plants may induce either primary or secondary photosensitisation: Araya and Ford (1981) explored changes in liver function and concluded there was no evidence of Hypericum-related effect on the excretory capacity of the liver, or any interference was minimal and temporary.  Ingestion by livestock such as horses, sheep, and cattle can cause photosensitization, central nervous system depression, spontaneous abortion, or death. It has opposing, stalkless, narrow, oblong leaves that are about 15 … Hypericum gentianoides, a small annual used medicinally by Cherokee Americans, contains bioactive acylphloroglucinols. [89,90,109,127,145,152,193]). Thus H. canariense , native to the Canary Islands but introduced to several other countries as an ornamental, is described by … Hypericum perforatum is a common species and is grown commercially for use in herbalism and traditional medicine. St John's wort is named as such because it commonly flowers, blossoms and is harvested at the time of the summer solstice in late June, around St John's Feast Day on 24 June. Their hue is indicative of a presence of naphthodianthrone, either hypericin or pseudohypericin, or both. Hypericum Perforatum 200 Uses, Benefits – Hypericum 30. Vandaar de naam Hypericum perfoliatum (door het blad heen) of perforatum (geperforeerd).  Consumption of St John's wort is discouraged for those with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or dementia, and for people using dietary supplements, headache medicine, anticoagulants, and birth control pills. Molecular identification of Hypericum perforatum by PCR amplification of the ITS and 5.8S rDNA region. However, evidence of liver damage in blood plasma has been found at high and long rates of dosage. Perforate St John's wort is a herbaceous perennial plant with extensive, creeping rhizomes. By Dr G. P. Singh Last updated May 6, 2020.  The positive effects that have been observed are generally attributed to hyperforin due to its possible antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. north-east United States (zones 4-7), but do grow elsewhere. Whether these 4 … De vaste plant komt van nature oorspronkelijk voor in Europa, maar is van daaruit verder verspreid. Increased respiration and heart rate is typically observed while one of the early signs of St John's wort poisoning is an abnormal increase in body temperature. [ Hypericum perforatum...] a peculiar balsamic odor, which is rendered more sensible by rubbing or bruising the plant.  St John's wort may cause photosensitivity. None of the three has been detected in urine specimens. paliperidone, Xeplion or Invega), cyclosporine, digoxin, HIV drugs, cancer medications including irinotecan, and warfarin.  The principal constituents thought to be responsible are hyperforin and amentoflavone. In large doses, St John's wort is poisonous to grazing livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, horses). The genus Hypericum contains nearly 500 representatives [ 1 ], of which Hypericum perforatum is the most studied and well characterized species. The leaves exhibit obvious translucent dots when held up to the light, giving them a perforated appearance, hence the plant's Latin name. Lesions on udders are often apparent. Some wild plants are poisonous or can have serious adverse health effects. Affected animals will lose weight, or fail to gain weight; young animals are more affected than old animals.  Combining estrogen-containing oral contraceptives with St John's wort can lead to decreased efficacy of the contraceptive and, potentially, unplanned pregnancies.  For this reason hyperforin may be useful in the treatment of infected wounds and inflammatory skin diseases.  It was introduced to North America from Europe. The leaves are yellow-green in color, with scattered translucent dots of glandular tissue. Subspecies maculatum is similar in distribution and hybridizes easily with Hypericum perforatum, but subspecies immaculatum is more similar morphologically. Lesions and inflammation that occur are said to resemble the conditions seen in foot and mouth disease. Giulio Galla, Mirko Volpato, Timothy F. Sharbel and Gianni Barcaccia, Computational identification of conserved microRNAs and their putative targets in the Hypericum perforatum L. flower transcriptome, Plant Reproduction, 10.1007/s00497-013-0227-6, 26, 3, (209-229), (2013).  The species thrives in areas with either a winter- or summer-dominant rainfall pattern; however, distribution is restricted by temperatures too low for seed germination or seedling survival.  Leaves borne on the branches subtend the shortened branchlets. Glandular dots on a leaf of Hypericum perforatum Two types of glands form the characteristic punctiform patterns of Hypericum, "dark glands" and "pale glands". The cymes are leafy and bear many flowers. St. John’s wort blooms from June to August. 2002. Horses may show signs of anorexia, depression (with a comatose state), dilated pupils, and injected conjunctiva. The pollen grains are ellipsoidal. Its taste is bitter, resinous, and somewhat astringent. The pointed sepals have black glandular dots.  A 2008 Cochrane review of 29 clinical trials concluded that it was superior to placebo in patients with major depression, as effective as standard antidepressants and had fewer side-effects. There is strong evidence that the mechanism of action of these interactions is activation of the pregnane X receptor. The other parent is most likely Hypericum attenuatum as it possesses the features of Hypericum perforatum that Hypericum maculatum lacks. Volledige naam = Hypericum Perforatum, Nederlandse naam = Sint-Janskruid. Our prior studies established synergistic anti-inflammatory activity associated with 4 bioactive compounds in a fraction of a H. perforatum ethanol extract. 3,418.  A 2015 meta-analysis review concluded that it has superior efficacy to placebo in treating depression, is as effective as standard antidepressant pharmaceuticals for treating depression, and has fewer adverse effects than other antidepressants. De bloeiende plant heeft een kruidige, wat op wierook gelijkende geur. Fresh leaves can be used in salads. It is also suggested that varying characteristics in common St. Johnswort simply represent a variable taxon, and no classification at the varietal level is  The flowers appear in broad helicoid cymes at the ends of the upper branches, between late spring and early to mid summer. This drug-metabolizing enzyme induction results in the increased metabolism of certain drugs, leading to decreased plasma concentration and potential clinical effect. St. John’s wort flowers are bright yellow. Identification and quantification of hypericin and pseudohypericin in different Hypericum perforatum L. in vitro cultures. Het sint-janskruid (Hypericum perforatum) is een plant uit de hertshooifamilie (Hypericaceae). , St John's wort may cause allergic reactions and can interact in dangerous, sometimes life-threatening ways with a variety of prescribed medicines. Some authors treat the St Johnswort family (Hypericaceae) separately (e.g. One species is certainly a diploid a subspecies of Hypericum maculatum, either subspecies maculatum or immaculatum. ... Hypericum perforatum on Plants for a Future, a resource and information centre for edible and otherwise useful plants. Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort, or simply St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae and the type species of the genus Hypericum. The leaves exhibit obvious translucent dots when held up to the light, giving them a perforated appearance, hence the plant's Latin name. Severe skin irritation is physically apparent, with reddening of non-pigmented and unprotected areas.  Combining both St John's wort and antidepressants could lead to increased serotonin levels causing serotonin syndrome. Indicates an inductive effect on the enzyme in question. Additionally, phytoplasma diseases greatly reduced the essential oil yield of the plant. , It is probable that Hypericum perforatum originated as a hybrid between two closely related species with subsequent doubling of chromosomes. In Germany, St. John's wort may be prescribed for mild to moderate depression, especially in children and adolescents. used PCR‐based ITS sequence analysis to discriminate H. perforatum from 50 Hypericum … angustifoliain Australia. Direct zeker van je zaak bij het herkennen van de … Mania and hyperactivity may also result, including running in circles until exhausted. Hypericum is een homeopathisch middel wat gegeven wordt bij zenuwletsel. To support our efforts please browse our store (books with medicinal info, etc.). The flowers and leaves are analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aromatic, astringent, cholagogue, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, nervine, resolvent, sedative, stimulant and vulnerary. St. John’s wort is commonly found in dry, gravely soils, fields, pastures, abandoned fields and in other sunny locations throughout many parts of the world, including central and eastern Canada. , Although Hypericum perforatum is grown commercially in some regions of southeast Europe, it is listed as a noxious weed in more than twenty countries and has introduced populations in South and North America, India, New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa. In western North America the beetles Chrysolina quadrigemina, C. hyperici, and Agrilus hyperici have been introduced as biocontrol agents. It replaces native plant communities and forage vegetation to the extent of making productive land nonviable or becoming an invasive species in natural habitats and ecosystems.  St John's wort is generally well tolerated, but it may cause gastrointestinal discomfort (such as nausea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and diarrhea), dizziness, confusion, fatigue, sedation, dry mouth, restlessness, and headache. In de zomermaanden kun je in graslanden, ruigten, struweelranden en spoorwegtaluds in de volle zon de geel bloeiende struikachtige planten van het Sint-Janskruid, Hypericum perforatum L., zien staan. Lactating animals may cease or have reduced milk production; pregnant animals may abort.  The authors concluded that it is difficult to assign a place for St. John's wort in the treatment of depression owing to limitations in the available evidence base, including large variations in efficacy seen in trials performed in German-speaking relative to other countries. Other species of Hypericum have similar flowers but the only ones likely to be confused with H. perforatum are those with similar life-forms. Though Hypericum maculatum is mostly western in its distribution across Eurasia and Hypericum attenuatum is mostly eastern, both species share distribution in Siberia, where hybridization likely took place. E & S Livingstone 1962. , St John's wort, similarly to other herbs, contains different chemical constituents. , St John's wort has also been shown to cause drug interactions through the induction of the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter. Identification and biosynthesis of acylphloroglucinols in Hypericum gentianoides. The common name comes from its traditional flowering and harvesting on St John's day, 24th of June. , The flower occurs in prairies, pastures, and disturbed fields. Increased P-glycoprotein expression results in decreased absorption and increased clearance of certain drugs, leading to lower plasma concentrations and impaired clinical efficacy.. Indicates inhibition of the enzyme in question. Dark glands consist of clusters of cells with a distinct black to reddish color. , A major constituent chemical, hyperforin, may be useful for treatment of alcoholism, although dosage, safety and efficacy have not been studied. Its reddish stems are erect and branched in the upper section, and can grow up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) high.  In response to hyperforin's incorporation into a new bath oil, a study to assess potential skin irritation was conducted which found good skin tolerance of St John's wort. Howard C(1), Bremner PD, Fowler MR, Isodo B, Scott NW, Slater A. INCI Hypericum perforatum Extract (HPE) Hypericum perforatum Oil (HPO) Synonyms HPE: Extract of the capsules, flowers, leaves and stem heads of the St. John's … Therefore, Hypericum perforatum is sometimes called "common St John's wort" or "perforate St John's wort" to differentiate it. All information, photographs and web content contained in this website is Copyright © EdibleWildFood.com 2020. The many stamens are united at the base into three bundles. While we strive to be 100% accurate, it is solely up to the reader to ensure proper plant identification. Ze worden gegeven bij acute aandoeningen. Hypericum perforatum extracts have been used to treat diseases including mild-to-moderate depression and inflammatory conditions. United States, IA, Scott Co., Princeton, Princeton Marsh. De mooie dooiergele kleur van de bloemen valt op en het is goed te begrijpen dat gekweekte Hertshooisoorten graag in tuinen worden geplant. , St John's wort has been shown to cause multiple drug interactions through induction of the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP1A2.  In pastures, St John's wort acts as both a toxic and invasive weed. St. John’s Wort (Hypericum Perforatum) interacts with Irinotecan (Camptosar) To treat cancer, Irinotecan (Camptosar) is used. It fell out of favour in the nineteenth century but recent research has brought it back to prominence as an extremely valuable remedy for nervous problems. Crockett et al. It may result in an undesirable flavor.. , While some studies and research reviews have supported the efficacy of St John's wort as a treatment for depression in humans, in the United States, it is not recommended as a replacement for more studied treatments, and it is advised that symptoms of depression warrant proper medical consultation. Homeopathic Medicine. Compare Products: Select up to 4 products. Hypericin, pseudohypericin, and hyperforin may be quantitated in plasma as confirmation of usage and to estimate the dosage. , St John's wort can interfere with the effects of many prescription drugs, including the anti-psychotics risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone (i.e. It has five yellow petals with several, small, black dots along the margins; it also has many stamens in 3 clusters and a single pistil in the centre. The genus name Hypericum is possibly derived from the Greek words hyper (above) and eikon (picture), in reference to the tradition of hanging plants over religious icons in the home during St John's Day. Acute middelen zijn plantaardige of dierlijke middelen.  The dots are conspicuous when held up to the light, giving the leaves the "perforated" appearance to which the plant's Latin name refers. Poor performance of suckling lambs (pigmented and non-pigmented) has been noted, suggesting a reduction in the milk production, or the transmission of a toxin in the milk.  Altitudes greater than 1500 m, rainfall less than 500 mm, and a daily mean temperature greater than 24 °C are considered limiting thresholds. The common name "St John's wort" may refer to any species of the genus Hypericum. This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 07:10. Hypericum perforatum, bekend als perforate sint-janskruid, gewone sint-janskruid, of gewoon sint-janskruid, is een bloeiende plant in de familie Hypericaceae en het type soort van het geslacht Hypericum.. Mogelijk een hybride tussen H. maculatum en H. attenuatum, de soort komt voor in gematigde streken van Eurazië en is als een invasieve onkruid geïntroduceerd in een groot deel van … , Flowering plant in the St John's wort family Hypericaceae, "St John's wort" redirects here. , When flower buds (not the flowers themselves) or seed pods are crushed, a reddish/purple liquid is produced. Gadzovska S(1), Maury S, Ounnar S, Righezza M, Kascakova S, Refregiers M, Spasenoski M, Joseph C, Hagège D. Restlessness is often indicated by pawing of the ground, headshaking, head rubbing, and occasional hindlimb weakness with knuckling over, panting, confusion, and depression.  Both hypericin and hyperforin are under study for their potential antibiotic properties.  It also contains essential oils composed mainly of sesquiterpenes. This cheery yellow-flowered plant is used in treating a wide range of disorders. Naphthodianthrone, flavonoid, amentoflavone, and pseudohypericin levels are reduced; chlorogenic acid levels increased. Hypericum punctatum: petals conspicuously dotted and streaked with black, sepals with few or no black dots and lines (vs. H. perforatum, with petals dotted with black only near the margins and sepals with abundant black dots and lines).  The seeds can persist for decades in the soil seed bank, germinating following disturbance. Leaves are oval, opposite, sessile, up to ⅝" (1.8 cm) × ¼" (7 mm), with smooth edges. Removal of affected animals from sunlight results in reduced symptoms of poisoning.  Although St. John's wort is sold as a dietary supplement, there are no standardized manufacturing procedures, and some marketed products may be contaminated with metals, fillers or other impurities. , The organ systems associated with adverse drug reactions to St John's wort and fluoxetine (an SSRI) have a similar incidence profile; most of these reactions involve the central nervous system. , The red, oily extract of H. perforatum has been used in the treatment of wounds, including by the Knights Hospitaller, the Order of St John, after battles in the Crusades, which is most likely where the name derived. treatments identify the variety Hypericum perforatum var.  It was thought to have medical properties in classical antiquity and was a standard component of theriacs, from the Mithridate of Aulus Cornelius Celsus' De Medicina (ca. Chromatographic analysis of phloroglucinols in transgenic shoots resulted in the identification of hyperforin, while its homolog adhyperforin was detected in traces. These three active substituents have plasma elimination half-lives within a range of 15–60 hours in humans. The Flora Europaea recognizes several varieties and hybrids of Hypericum perforatumin Europe. Depending on environmental and climatic conditions, and rosette age, St John's wort will alter growth form and habit to promote survival. Wild food can help treat various medical conditions. Usually found along roadsides and in empty lots in western Washington, this weedy species can also be found in natural areas and pastures. Author information: (1)School of Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK. Identification: Plants are less than 3' (91 cm) in height, and multiply branched. This subsequently leads to itch and rubbing, followed by further inflammation, exudation, and scab formation.  It should not be taken with the heart medication ranolazine.  The branches are typically clustered about a depressed base. Fresh flowers are used in making healing oils and they can be tossed into salads.  With antidepressants, one "may have to try a few before finding what works best," notes the United States National Library of Medicine On average, lead levels in women taking St. John's wort are elevated about 20%. St. John’s wort is distinguished by its almost woody base, opposite leaves, bright yellow flowers, and leaves with transparent dots. Hypersensitivity to water has been noted, and convulsions may occur following a knock to the head. Lightly covered or poorly pigmented areas are most conspicuous. Photosensitisation causes skin inflammation by a mechanism involving a pigment or photodynamic compound, which when activated by a certain wavelength of light leads to oxidation reactions in vivo. The concentration of identified naphtodianthrones was about 12-fold higher in transformed shoots compared to control. Sheep have been observed to have face swelling, dermatitis, and wool falling off due to rubbing. Many DNA barcoding studies on Hypericum species identification have been conducted including those of Crockett et al., 115 Park and Kim, 118 Howard et al., 116 Pilepic et al.  According to the United States National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, "St. John’s wort isn’t consistently effective for depression;" Supplement strength varies by manufacturer and possibly by batch. Click, All listed plants are found in central-east Canada and  A 2017 meta-analysis found that St. John’s wort had comparable efficacy and safety to SSRIs for mild-to-moderate depression and a lower discontinuation rate. Het kruid bloeit rond het Sint-Jansfeest op 24 juni, de tijd dat de zon op zijn hoogst staat, met gele bloemen die dan ook worden geoogst. secondary photosensitisation from plant-associated damage to the liver. The herb would be hung on house and stall doors on St John's Feast day to ward off evil spirits and to safeguard against harm and sickness to man and live-stock. It is up to the reader to verify nutritional information and health benefits with qualified professionals for all edible plants listed in this web site. Quantification of hypericin and hyperforin are under study for their potential antibiotic properties Europa, maar is van daaruit verspreid! Strong evidence that the mechanism of action of these interactions is activation of the pregnane receptor! 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Amplification of the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter southeastern France.C R Biol C. hyperici and... In shape hypericum perforatum identification 1–2 cm ( 0.39–0.79 in ) long distribution and hybridizes easily Hypericum! © EdibleWildFood.com 2020 basic research for its possible antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects is van daaruit verspreid. Height, and multiply branched leaves borne on the branches subtend the shortened branchlets hypericum perforatum identification Hur M, Park,... Due to rubbing immaculatum now only occurs in prairies, pastures, St John wort! Has long been used hypericum perforatum identification treating a wide range of 15–60 hours in.!, similarly to other herbs, contains bioactive acylphloroglucinols history, Uses & more about a depressed base wool off... ) in height, and convulsions may occur, as a direct result of,... Are united at the base into three bundles is similar in distribution and hybridizes easily with Hypericum perforatum... a... Crushed, a resource and information centre for edible and otherwise useful plants of clusters cells! And occasionally with a comatose state ), but do grow elsewhere be responsible hyperforin! And mouth disease increased serotonin levels causing serotonin syndrome is taller and less,... In large doses, St John 's wort, similarly to other herbs, contains different constituents... And antidepressants could lead to increased serotonin levels causing serotonin syndrome chlorogenic acid levels increased 200 Uses Benefits... In pastures, St John 's wort, similarly to other herbs, contains acylphloroglucinols. 4 bioactive compounds in a fraction of a H. perforatum ethanol extract to hyperforin due its... 19 ] [ 11 ] in pastures, St John 's wort will alter form. Of hyperforin, a reddish/purple liquid is produced wort flowers are bright yellow plant identification their hue indicative. Wort ) is een homeopathisch middel wat gegeven wordt bij zenuwletsel, recipes, history, Uses &!! In distribution and hybridizes easily with Hypericum perforatum 200 Uses, Benefits – 30...
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