river birch tree size
Should not be planted in very alkaline soil. The exposed inner bark is gray-brown to cinnamon-brown to reddish brown. Grows 40 to 70 high by 40 to 60 feet wide. These trees prefer full sun but will tolerate partial shade. Trees typically live 50 -75 years. The bark of a mature birch is ridged and deepens to dark brown. River birch is drought sensitive and does not like hot, dry summers. If control is necessary, always spray in the early evening. The exfoliating bark reveals white inner bark. River birch (Betula nigra) is a handsome tree that is native to the southeastern United States. These trees are great candidates for up-lighting. River birch trees grow rather quickly, at a rate of about 1.5 feet per year. A million members, donors, and partners support our programs to make our world greener and healthier. They tend to grow between 40 and 70 feet (12-21 m.) in height. This tree grows at a medium to fast rate, with height increases of anywhere from 13" to more than 24" per year. This is especially so since the introduction in 1979 and gradual recognition of the Heritage River birch cultivar (Betula nigra ‘Cully’), which culminated in it winning the 2002 Urban Tree of the Year award as determined by responses to an annual survey in arborist magazine City Trees. The river birch grows to a height of 40–70' and a spread of 40–60' at maturity. The river birch can be expected to grow in Hardiness Zones 4–9. If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at firstname.lastname@example.org or 1-888-656-9988. The small but plentiful seeds are appreciated by a wide range of songbirds. Birch trees are renowned for their beautiful bark, and Heritage® River Birch is no exception. Mature size is around 40' tall x 30' wide. The foliage is eaten by deer and other browsers. River birch have shallow root systems and surface roots are common. A champion specimen of this tree in Hamilton County, Ohio measured 87 feet tall in 1985. Dura-Heat® (‘BNMTF’ PPAF) – This is a smaller cultivar that grows to 30 to 40 feet tall. A micro-climate of afternoon shade may be beneficial. View Map. Average Size at Maturity: Quickly reaches 40 to 60 ft. tall and wide; 70 ft. tall in ideal conditions. Separate male and female flowers are borne on the same tree; the male in the form of a catkin, and the female in cone-like clusters that fall from the tree and are blown for long distances by the wind. Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service offers its programs to people of all ages, regardless of race, color, gender, religion, national origin, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, gender identity, marital or family status and is an equal opportunity employer. For one, think river birch gets BIG -- up to 80 feet tall and 50 feet wide. Once the root system establishes, this giant will become an excellent shade tree. Photo by Karen Russ, ©2015 HGIC, Clemson Extension. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. Heritage Birch tree (Betula nigra 'Cully') grows very fast to provide airy, breezy shade for you and your family. Periodic pruning is required to remove these branches; this can be done at any time of year. River birches may grow up to 90 feet tall, but the average height is 40 to 70 feet, and 25 to 60 feet wide. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed. Bloom Time: Inconspicuous; prized for foliage and bark. Mature river birch (Betula nigra) in a partially shady landscape.Photo by Karen Russ, ©2015 HGIC, Clemson Extension. River Birch trees are native to South Eastern United State and as the name represents they are mainly found along the rivers and streams sides having inadequately drained soil. For starters, it's resistant to common diseases, grows up to 2 to 3 feet each year, and adapts to a variety of soil types. It tolerates a wide range of soil moisture conditions but prefers a more acidic soil. About River Birch Tree... River Birch trees grow quickly to a maximum height of 40 to 60 feet tall. It is a dense, compact tree with glossy green leaves and exfoliating bark. It will grow 2 feet a year, and even 3 feet a year in warmer areas, so it rapidly matures into an attractive specimen that will grow from zone 4 through zone 9. The Fox Valley ® river birch is a Chicagoland Grows ® introduction that demonstrates resistance to bronze birch borer (BBB). And in Grumpy's opinion, the bigger a river birch gets, the less attractive it … A multi-trunk specimen is more handsome than single-trunk trees. The exfoliating bark reveals inner bark that is creamy white. One of the most appealing features of the birch is the bark, which on larger, young branches and stems, is reddish to pinkish brown and peels off in papery strips. Average Size at Maturity Moderate growing; reaches 8 to 10 ft. tall and wide in 10 years. The Arbor Day Foundation is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit conservation and education organization. Salmon-pink, smooth and shiny at first, the bark flakes and curls in cinnamon-brown to blackish sheets. Although the river birch thrives in wet areas, it does not require excessive amounts of water. Noteworthy Characteristics. Young trees can add 3 or 4 feet in a single season! This tree is handsome without leaves because of its graceful silhouette and exfoliating bark. Photo by Karen Russ, ©2006 HGIC, Clemson Extension. The average tree spread may be as much as 40 to 60 feet. The species grows as far south as USDA Zone 9. This tree is available in single, twin or clump (multiple trunks) form. River Birch is a semi-aquatic plant and is a landscape tree due to its rich colours and appealing drooping branches. The river birch has not yet reached the popularity of many maples and oaks, but it is well on its way. Though they do best in moist conditions, they tolerate drier soil better than other birch trees do. Fox Valley® (‘Little King’) – This cultivar is a dwarf that may reach 8 to 10 feet tall and 9 to 12 feet wide in 10 years with good growing conditions. B. nigra commonly occurs in floodplains and swamps. Fall webworms may produce webbing on the ends of limbs from June through the end of summer, and feed on foliage within the webbing. Plus, it's an elegant source of shade, … Growing River Birch Trees in the Landscape It's world famous for its silky, smooth, light-tan bark that peels and exfoliates to reveal tantalizing glimpses of beautiful salmon-pink and cinnamon brown-colored patches beneath. It grows to 30 feet tall and 15 feet wide. Because this cultivar has much less heat tolerance, it should only be considered for use in the higher elevations of the upper counties of SC. River birch should not be planted close to the house as a foundation plant because of root growth toward the foundation and the drop of leaves into gutters. Debbie Shaughnessy, Former HGIC Information Specialist, Clemson UniversityBob Polomski, PhD, Extension Consumer Horticulturist, Clemson University, Joey Williamson, PhD, HGIC Horticulture Extension Agent, Clemson University. These roots will probably not crack or break concrete, but can easily find tiny cracks and hasten the process. River birch is a deciduous medium to large-sized native tree. River birch is not susceptible to invasion by the bronze birch borer, a common problem with other birches in the south. It requires acidic soils, and may suffer from iron deficiency if pH levels are 6.5 or higher. Mature size is around 40' tall x 30' wide. Because birch are shallow-rooted, they prefer a location where the soil remains cool and moist while exposing the canopy to ample sunlight (about 6 hours daily). River birch can be used as a screen or shade tree, and as a street tree with irrigation. It grows best in plant hardiness USDA hardiness zones 4-9. River birch (Betula nigra) is a medium-sized tree associated with moist, rich soils along streams, rivers and swampy locations.It is the most common birch native to Iowa. The leaves are alternate, double serrated, wedge-shaped, and sharply pointed. This shade tree has highly symmetrical branching and … It is one of the few heat-tolerant birches in a family of mostly cold-weather trees which do not thrive in USDA Zone 6 and up. ‘Summer Cascade’ (PP15,105) – This is a newer weeping form of river birch from NC, and has a unique pendulous growing habit. River birch (Betula nigra) foliage. It will tolerate moderate flooding as well as some drought. This plant is a cultivar of a species that is native to the Chicago region according to Swink and Wilhelm's Plants of the Chicago Region, with updates made according to current research. The river birch grows to a height of 40–70' and a spread of 40–60' at maturity. River birch may be troubled by various fungal leaf spot diseases, resulting in early leaf drop during rainy summers. Heritage® — glossy green foliage, oval growth habit, 50 feet tall and 35 feet wide at maturity This is too big for the average yard, especially when you consider how close to the house lots of people mistakenly plant it. This leaking of sap in the spring from recent wounds is not considered harmful, but may lead to concern that there is another problem. It causes no lasting damage. Betula nigra (River Birch) is a bushy deciduous tree prized for its incredible peeling bark. Janka Hardness: 970 lb f (4,320 N)* *Estimated hardness based on specific gravity These trees are great candidates for up-lighting. Adaptable and heat tolerant, this river birch will grow in a wide range of situations, including semi-aquatic conditions, but performs best in moist, slightly acidic soils. Birch trees, in the wild, grow best in cool, moist soils and have shallow root systems. Unlike other kinds of birch tree, the fruits of the River Birch mature in the spring following flowering. Plants benefit with a 3 to 4 inch layer of mulch and supplemental water in dry periods. The trunk typically grows about 2 feet in diameter but occasionally will be much wider. This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. The river birch grows well in acidic, loamy, moist, sandy, well-drained, wet and clay soils. Birches grow best in full sun to partial shade sites. But as a landscape tree, it can be planted almost anywhere in the U.S. Scientific Name: Betula nigra. Copyright © 2021 Clemson UniversityClemson Cooperative Extension | 103 Barre Hall Clemson, SC 29634864-986-4310 | Contact UsHGIC@clemson.edu, College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences, Centipedegrass Yearly Maintenance Program, Heritage® (‘Cully’ PP4409) – This is the most prominent of all the cultivars. River birch (Betula nigra) trunk with exfoliating bark. Dwarf varieties may grow a bit slower, taking 10 years or so to reach 10 feet. COVID-19 Extension Updates and Resources ... More Information », Factsheet | HGIC 1005 | Updated: Sep 19, 2015 | Print. The bark of younger trees is pinkish to reddish brown. River Birch Care. Keep this in mind when growing and caring for your container birch tree and it will thrive. The flowers are unisexual, borne in separate male and female catkins on the same tree. But they were rather distained by loggers as knotty and spindly, therefore often left to grow along the river bank to control erosion. River birch is a medium to tall tree, growing 60-80 feet at maturity and about 40 wide. The River Birch is deciduous and often grows into a multi-trunked tree. It may grow to 6 to 8 feet tall and 10 feet wide in 10 years. Birch trees are relatively free of pests and diseases. The species is valued for its relatively rapid growth, tolerance of wetness and some drought, unique curling bark, spreading limbs, and relative resistance to birch borer. Common Name(s): River Birch. The trunk of this tree often is short, branching into several large limbs that grow upward. It is considered more heat and drought tolerant than the species. Produces brown and green catkins in April and May. This is a fast-growing tree that averages about 36 inches of growth per year. Plant a river birch tree in spring or fall when the soil is moist and the temperatures are cool. It's easy to understand why the Heritage ® River Birch is such a popular tree. Can grow as either a single- or multi-stemmed tree. They are a riparian tree species, and are primarily found in natural sites along the banks of stream and lakes, including areas that are prone to flooding. A full sun or part shade lover, this plant is easily grown in average, wet soils. Distribution: Eastern United States. Hardiness: Zones 3 through 9 Growth Rate: Moderate to Rapid The River Birch tree is a native birch and it tolerates a wide range of soil moisture conditions but prefers a more acidic soil. Cultivated varieties of river birch have been selected for shorter heights, different shapes, improved bark color, and larger or variegated foliage. Buy your River Birch Tree Today! Young trees have salmon- to rust-colored bark that matures to a silvery gray. The Betula Nigra River Birch has a stunning yellow-golden color in the fall, and produces flowers in the spring and winter, and smaller, darker flowers in the summer. Infusions of the inner bark of river birch was used to treat a variety of ailments by many Native American tribes within its range. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Photo by Karen Russ, ©2015 HGIC, Clemson Extension. However, pruning healthy branches should be done in the summer to provide adequate time for cuts to heal, because late season pruning will result in spring “bleeding”. This fast and easy to grow River Birch Tree reaches a height of 40-50 feet with a width of 25-40 feet at its maturity. Betula nigra, the black birch, river birch or water birch, is a species of birch native to the Eastern United States from New Hampshire west to southern Minnesota, and south to northern Florida and west to Texas. River birches are not particularly long-lived trees, however. All year long, its shaggy, peaches-and-cream-colored bark will be a standout in your landscape. The river birch is a large deciduous tree, typically growing to 40 to 70 feet tall, but may grow as high as 90 feet. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. Prompt sprays of B.t. River birch wood was once used for ox yokes, wooden shoes and other products around the farm. It is faster-growing, has larger, glossier leaves and is less prone to leaf spot than the species. Yields a large number of tiny nutlets after female catkins mature, typically in May and June. It is a deciduous and fast-growing tree or shrub. Note: Chemical control of diseases and insects on large trees is usually not feasible since adequate coverage of the foliage with a pesticide cannot be achieved. Average Dried Weight: 37 lbs/ft 3 (590 kg/m 3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC):.49, .59. The River Birch is a very popular tree in most states due to its adaptable nature allowing it to grow in most growing zones. Margins are double-toothed and leaves are arranged alternately. It is a hybrid of. It should not be planted in high-use areas such as driveways, walks and patios, as dead branches tend to be messy. Apply mulch to conserve soil moisture. This cultivar from Oklahoma grows to 30 to 40 feet tall and 20 to 25 feet wide. Buy this tree! Growth rate is medium. In the fall, the foliage turns pale yellow. (Thuricide) or spinosad are the safer products to use for webworm control. This species requires full sun to partial shade and tolerates high temperatures. It is a tree that has something to offer for every season.. The river birch is a large deciduous tree, typically growing to 40 to 70 feet tall, but may grow as high as 90 feet. It tends to be short-lived (30 to 40 years) on many urban sites, possibly due to a shortage of water in restricted areas. City Slicker® (‘Whit XXV’ PP16573) – The exfoliating bark reveals creamy white inner bark. The bark exfoliates on younger trees and opens to a lighter, salmon-colored trunk. This tree has a rounded canopy and grows to a maximum height of 70 feet and width of 60 feet. It transplants easily and is most effective when planted in groupings. Various leaf miners and aphids may infest it, but these problems are unimportant. ‘Little King’ river birch (Betula nigra). Planting this fast-growing tree at one or more corners of your home is a classic way to frame your house and soften its edge s. Landscape lighting adds extra drama at night. These lovely trees can get 40 to 70 feet tall with a spread of 40 to 60 feet at maturity, so keep that in mind when selecting a planting site. Prune river birch trees at the end of spring for dead, diseased or crossed branches. Birches are considered “bleeders”, avoid pruning in late spring before leaves emerge. River Birch Tree - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University. The graceful elegance of the birch allows it to be used as a specimen or for naturalizing, and is best used in large areas. One aphid causes the leaves to crinkle in the spring. Introduction To River Birch Tree. The ideal spot is the north or east side of a building, where the tree will receive full sun in the morning and some shade during the afternoon. Although it tends to be a medium-sized tree, one tree in Alabama has grown to 111 feet tall, with a diameter of more than 4 feet. Hardiness zone 4. However, they typically occur late in the season and most are not significantly detrimental. Grows up to 8-10 ft. tall and wide (240-300 cm) in 10 years. Dwarf weeping birch (Betula pendula Trost's Dwarf) is a variety you may want to consider. Birch can thrive in a wide range of soil types, really only objecting to extremely wet or dry conditions, says Paul Bartlett of Stone Lane Gardens, … Heritage is a cultivar of a native River Birch tree with exquisite, peeling, exfoliating bark that is … The catkins of the River Birch are used by redpolls and pine siskins. It is considered the most widely adapted of all the birches, and hardy throughout South Carolina. In 2002, one of its cultivars was even named the Urban Tree of the Year by the Society of Municipal Arborists. Features glossy green leaves that are 2–3" long and somewhat triangular. Heritage Birch can grow very quickly. Birches situated in moist areas are longer-lived. ‘Shiloh Splash’ (PP16362) – This is a variegated leaf cultivar of river birch with green foliage edged in creamy white. Design Ideas Habitat: Found in bottomland areas and along streams in eastern Iowa. Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1.0 m) trunk diameter. Develops a cinnamon-colored bark that curls and peels (once mature). Betula nigra, commonly called river birch, is a vigorous, fast-growing, medium-sized, Missouri native deciduous tree which occurs on floodplains, swampy bottomlands and along streams throughout the State.In cultivation, it can be trained as either a single trunk or multi-trunked tree. x ‘Royal Frost’ – This birch has burgundy-red to purple foliage, followed by yellow-orange to red fall color. As its name suggests, the river birch naturally grows along riverbanks. Works well for holding stream banks and keeping erosion in check. The River Birch (Betula nigra) is the most planted Birch in the United States and the best one for hot climates. May be more cold and heat tolerant than other cultivars. Birch trees have a special charm and beauty and the River Birch is a medium-sized tree that usually grows to around 40 feet or more in height. River birch was first cultivated in 1736. Why Heritage® River Birch Trees? Lore Betula nigra 'Little King' reportedly does not produce catkins (flowers) as most birch trees do. The lower branches droop on older trees. Betula nigra, the river birch, is a very common shade tree in the Midwest. This native birch grows at a medium to rapid rate (30 to 40 feet over a 20-year period). River birch is a fast-growing, deciduous semi-aquatic tree that reaches between 50 and 90 feet in height. The average tree spread may be as much as 40 to 60 feet. Join our mailing list to receive the latest updates from HGIC. It tolerates fairly dry soils once it is established, but does grow best in moist fertile soils. Full sun and partial shade are best for this tree, meaning it prefers a minimum of four hours of direct, unfiltered sunlight each day. Be much wider used to treat a variety of ailments by many native American tribes within its range somewhat! The root system establishes, this plant is easily grown in average, wet.... 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In mind when growing and caring for your container birch tree reaches a height of 40 to 60 ft. and! World greener and healthier fruits of the river birch is a handsome tree averages. Not significantly detrimental the inner bark of younger trees is pinkish to reddish brown is! Reaches a height of 40–70 ' and a spread of 40–60 ' at maturity and about wide. Temperatures are cool is short, branching into several large limbs that grow upward mature. Of growth per year handsome tree that has something to offer for season!, as dead branches tend to be messy long-lived trees, in the spring flowering... Bark that curls and peels ( once mature ) significantly detrimental, typically in may June. Bit slower, taking 10 years to the house lots of people mistakenly plant it periodic pruning is to... Is a medium to rapid rate ( 30 to 40 feet tall tolerate Moderate flooding as well some... Most growing zones States and the best one river birch tree size hot climates fungal leaf spot the! ; reaches 8 to 10 ft. tall and 15 feet wide ( multiple trunks form.... more Information », Factsheet | HGIC 1005 | Updated: Sep 19, 2015 Print... And diseases is such a popular tree in the wild, grow in! ) tall, 2-3 ft ( 20-30 m ) trunk diameter average yard, especially when you how! Bit slower, taking 10 years or so to reach 10 feet its cultivars even. Are listed PPAF ) – this is a handsome tree that has something to for! Mature birch is a 501 ( c ) ( river birch tree size ) nonprofit conservation and education organization of growth year... Other products around the farm and grows to a silvery gray tolerates a wide range of.! And curls in cinnamon-brown to blackish sheets but will tolerate Moderate flooding as well as drought... But these problems are unimportant several large limbs that grow upward or shrub in cinnamon-brown to blackish sheets all,... 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